Vulgaris

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butter-and-eggs
Family: Plantaginaceae (Mare's-tail family)(Previously in Scrophulariaceae) [E-flora]
Other Names: (butter and eggs; common toadflax)[E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]


Identification

Linaria vulgaris is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It is noted for attracting wildlife.[PFAF]
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.[PFAF]


Hazards


Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses

Yellow toadflax has a long history of herbal use. It acts mainly on the liver and was once widely employed as a diuretic in the treatment of oedema[238]. It is little used now, but undoubtedly merits investigation[238]. [PFAF] True Toadflax is the flowering herb of Linaria vulgaris. The medicinal part is the fresh or dried herb.[PDR]


Folk Uses


Lore

"It has had its medicinal uses in the past, even though strongly derivative of the doctrine of signatures. As Grigson put it, yellow suggests yellow, so one should not be surprised to find the early herbalists prescribing it for bladder problems. Parkinson. 1640, for instance, said, “the Tode Flaxe is accounted to be good, to cause one to make water”. Earlier, Gerard had claimed that the decoction would “provoke urine, in those that pisse drop by drop”, and it would unstop the kidneys and bladder. The same decoction was used for a second ailment, jaundice, also obviously from the same doctrine. Gerard produced yet another “yellow” remedy – “the decoction of Tode-flax taketh away the yellownesse and deformitie of the skinne, being washed and bathed therewith”. It can be used for warts, too – just rub it on (Tongue. 1965)." [DPL Watts]

"Though frequent to common over much of the British Isles at least since the time of William Turner, it tends to occupy only [late-created] habitats and has the suspect look of a slow-spreading invader from the Continent. That so conspicuous and easily distinguished a plant scarcely features as a folk herb in the British Isles, even though long established in official medicine, adds strength to that suspicion."[MPFT]


Phytochemicals
Iridoide monoterpenes: chief component - antirrhinoside
Flavonoids: including among others linarin, pectolinarin, linariin (pectolinarigenin-7-rhamnoglucoside- acetate)
Aurones: including among others aureusin, bracteatin-6-Oglucoside
Quinazoline alkaloids: peganine (vasicin)[PDR]

Chinese and North American Medicinal Herbs Belonging to the Same Species: Major Constituents and Therapeutic Values [CRNAH]
Linaria vulgaris
China Peganine, linarin, pectolinarin, neolinarin, flavons, pectolinarigenin, linaracrine, linarezine,

phytosterine.[48]

Diuretic, treat headache, dizziness, heart conditions. Externally treat burns, skin diseases
N/A Linarin, sterols, sugars, tannins, mucilage.[99] Treat jaundice, chronic constipation, skin disease

Pharmacology

YELLOW TOADFLAX, BUTTER AND EGGS (Linaria vulgaris Mill.) [HMH Duke]
Activities (Yellow Toadflax) —

Antiinflammatory (1; PH2);
Antiscorbutic (f; EFS)
Astringent (f;PNC);

Depurative (f; FEL);

Detergent (f; EFS);
Diaphoretic (1; PH2);
Diuretic (1; PH2);

Emollient(f; EFS);

Hepatic (f; PNC);
Laxative (f; EFS; MAD; PH2);
Vulnerary (f; EFS)

Indications (Yellow Toadflax) —

Cancer,breast (f; JLH);
Cancer, lip (f; JLH);
Constipation (f; EFS; MAD; PH2);
Dermatosis (f; MAD; PH2);

Dysuria (1; MAD; PH2);
Enuresis (f;HHB; MAD);
Hemorrhoid (f; MAD; PH2);
Infection (f; PH2);

Jaundice (f; FEL; MAD);
Sore (f; MAD; PH2);
Splenosis (f; FEL; MAD);
Water Retention (1; MAD; PH2)

Dosages (Yellow Toadflax) — 1.5 g herb/cup (HHB); 1–2 tsp (1.3–2.6 g) in herb infusion (MAD); 1–2 tsp drug/2–4 cups water, steep 18 minutes, drink throughout the day (PH2); externally as poultice (PH2).

Cultivation

Succeeds in a moderately good well-drained soil[1]. Grows best in a neutral to alkaline soil[238]. It prefers a sunny position[111] but also succeeds in semi-shade[219]. A very drought resistant plant once established[200], it can be grown in a drystone wall[219]. Plants can spread fairly aggressively at the roots when they are in a suitable position[K]. They also often self-sow freely[238]. A good bee plant[24].[PFAF]

Propagation

Seed - sow early spring in situ. Division in April or the autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. This species can be divided successfully at almost any time in the growing season.[PFAF]



Synonyms


References


Caution
The information presented on this site is provided for educational purposes. Self diagnosis and treatment, without due diligence, could be harmful and is not encouraged. Some information & images may be copyright. Every effort has been made to present the information in the spirit with which it was originally presented. Some data has been omitted for legal and/or practical consideration. There is some data not covered in the scope of this project, including, but not limited to, cell culture and large-dose animal studies. I have made comparisons and links between related species which may later prove erroneous. I have not verified the information for accuracy and I accept no responsibility for its authenticity. Many of the plants presented are poisonous, have poisonous properties, or could cause illness through misuse, allergic reaction, drug interactions and environmental contaminants. Please use caution and mindfulness when harvesting plants for any use.

Page last modified on 30-09-2016