Vinca

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VINCA - PERIWINKLE

Perennial herb, ± glabrous (except ciliate leaf, sepal margins). Leaf: opposite to subopposite. Inflorescence: flowers generally 1 in leaf axils. Flower: calyx lobes long, slender; corolla tube funnel-shaped, lobes asymmetric; filaments free, attached near top of corolla tube, sharply bent near base, unappendaged, anthers held around top of but free from stigma, each partly sterile, pollen ± free; nectaries 2, alternate ovaries, wide-spaced, generally not exceeding ovaries; style cylindric, widened distally, stigma skirted at base. Seed: glabrous.
6–7 species: southern Europe, northern Africa, to Afghanistan. (Latin: possibly, to bind or wind about)
Unabridged references: [Taylor & Farnsworth 1973 The Vinca alkaloids]
Unabridged note: 2n=46 in Vinca minor, Homo sapiens, and Lepus europaeus (and other hares), not suggesting a close relationship among these taxa, yet supporting the idea that classification should be based on more than one kind of evidence.[Jepson]

[E-flora]

Local Species;

  1. Vinca major - large periwinkle [E-flora]
  2. Vinca minor - common periwinkle [E-flora]

Key to the Species and Taxonomic Notes

  • 1. Flowers usually 20-30 mm wide, usually solitary; calyx lobes glabrous; leaves narrowed at the base............V. minor
  • 1. Flowers usually 30-50 mm wide, up to 4 per stem; calyx lobes ciliate; leaves squared-off or somewhat heart-shaped at the base............. V. major

[E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]


Common Periwinkle - Vinca minor

USDA Flower Colour: Blue
USDA Blooming Period: Early Summer [USDA-E-flora-2]

Synonyms


Large Periwinkle - V.major

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]


Species Mentioned;

Vinca minor/major, Catharanthus rosea [Erowid] Most authors suggest that the greater and lesser periwinkle are generically interchangeable medicinally, and I agree, so far. [HMH Duke]


Hazards

V. minor & V. major; Large quantities of the plant are poisonous[19, 65].[PFAF]

Vinca Spp. contraindicated during pregnancy [Hudson WENM][Moore(1995)]

Vinca minor


Other Uses

Medicinal Uses

Folklore has attributed curative properties to the periwinkle plant. It has been recommended as a remedy for diarrhea and hemorrhages. A tea made from the plant can be used for nervous conditions. It was thought to be a cure for diabetes. Chewing the herb has been recommended to stop toothache or to stop bleeding in the mouth and nose. Another source also reports its use as a laxative, for cramp, and for skin inflammation, and suggests the use of Vinca major as a gargle in cases of scurvy, sore throat and inflamed tonsils.[Thame,1989]


Medicinal

Vinca minor

GREATER PERIWINKLE (Vinca major L.) +
Dosages (Greater Periwinkle) — 2–4 g dry herb/cup tea to 3 ×/day (HH2).
Extracts (Greater Periwinkle) — Aqueous extract (1.82 g leaf/50 ml water reduces in vitro (in human serum) cholinesterase activity by 50% (HH2). Mix of vincamine and vincine lower blood pressure IC27–40 = 5–10 mg/kg ivn rat LD50 (mixed alkaloids) = 37 mg/kg ivn mouse (HH2).[HMH Duke]

LESSER PERIWINKLE (Vinca minor L.) +
Dosages (Lesser Periwinkle) — 2–4 g powdered herb (PNC); 200 ml boiling water over 1 tsp herb, 2–3 cups/day (PH2); 15 g herb/250 ml water for infusion (PH2); macerate 100 g herbs in a liter of wine, steep 10 days (PH2); 2.5–5 ml liquid herb extract (PNC); 2–5 g fluid extract (MAD). .[HMH Duke]


Phytochemicals

Vinca major

  • Akuammicine [67] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Akuammine [68] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Akuammine N-oxide [69] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Ervine [67] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Isomajdine [70] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Lanceomigine [69] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Majdine [68] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Majoridine (majdinine) [71] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Majorinine [67] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Quebrachidine (vincarine) [72] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Reserpinine [68] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Vincamajine [67] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Vincamajinine [73] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Vincamajoreine [67, 74] [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Vincamine [72] [Azimova Alkaloids]

Vinca major subsp. major L.

  • 11-hydroxypolyneuridine [IAVMM]
  • vallesiachotamine [IAVMM]
  • isovallesiachotamine [IAVMM]

Vinva major (leaves)

  • vinmajoroside (secoiridoid glucoside) [IMGA]
  • ((7α)-7-O-methylmorroniside, 2), [IMGA]
  • iridoid (loganin, loganic acid and 7-O-p-coumaroylloganin), [IMGA]
  • monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloid (5 (S)-5-carboxyvincoside and strictosamide),[IMGA]
  • flavonoid (rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and robinin), [IMGA]
  • lignan (syringaresinol 4-O-β-glucopyranoside)[IMGA]
  • phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid) groups. [IMGA]
  • A new alkaloid, majvinine, was isolated from aerial parts of Vinca major. [MANIA]

V.minor

Chemicals in: Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae) -- Periwinkle, Running-Myrtle

(+)-QUEBRACHAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
1,2-DEHYDROASPIDOSPERMIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A
10-METHOXY-DEACETYLAKUAMMILINE Plant: DUKE1992A
11-METHOXY-EBURNAMONINE Plant: DUKE1992A
11-METHOXYVINCAMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
14-EPIVINCAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
16-METHOXY-20-OXO-1-VINCADIFFORMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
16-METHOXYMINOVINCININE Plant: DUKE1992A
20-HYDROXYVINCAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
3-BETA-GLUCOSYLOXY-2-HYDROXYBENZOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
ALKALOIDS Leaf 1,100 - 70,600 ppm DUKE1992A Root 12,400 - 19,800 ppm DUKE1992A
BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A
CAOUTCHOUC Leaf 11,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Plant 20,000 - 22,000 ppm DUKE1992A
CAROTENE Leaf 1,300 ppm; DUKE1992A
DAMBONITOL Plant: DUKE1992A
DEACETYLAKUAMMILINE Plant: DUKE1992A
DELPHINIDIN-3,5-DIGLYCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
DIMETHOXY-EBURNAMONINE Plant: DUKE1992A
EBURNAMENINE Plant: DUKE1992A
EBURNAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
EBURNAMONINE Plant: DUKE1992A
EPIPLEIOCARPAMINE-N(4)-OXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
EPIVINCAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
FRUCTOSE Plant: DUKE1992A
GENTISINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
INTYBIN Leaf: DUKE1992A
ISOBURNAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
ISOVINCAMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
KAEMPFEROL-3-RHAMNOSYLGALACTOSIDE-7-GALACTOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A
L-BORNESITOL Plant: DUKE1992A
L-GLUTAMATE-CARBOXYLASE Leaf: DUKE1992A
METHOXYMINOVINCINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
MINORINE Plant: DUKE1992A
MINOVINCEINE Plant: DUKE1992A
MINOVINCINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
MINOVINCININE Leaf: DUKE1992A
MINOVINE Plant: DUKE1992A
MYRICETIN-3-ROBINOBIOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A
N(1)-METHYL-2BETA,16BETA-DIHYDROAKUAMMICINE Plant: DUKE1992A
N(4)-METHOCHLORIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
N-METHYL-QUEBRACHAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
N-METHYLASPIDOSPERMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
O-PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
ORNOL Plant: DUKE1992A

P-COUMARIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
PERIVINCINE Plant: DUKE1992A
PICRININE Plant: DUKE1992A
PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
PUBESCEINE Plant: DUKE1992A
QUERCETIN-3-RHAMNOGLUCOSIDE-7-BETA-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
QUERCETIN-3-ROBINOBIOSIDE-7-RHAMNOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A
RESERPINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
ROBININ Flower 4,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
ROBINOSIDE Flower 4,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
SAPONIN Plant: DUKE1992A
STRICTAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
TANNIN Plant: DUKE1992A
TRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A
URSOLIC-ACID Leaf 1,400 - 37,000 ppm DUKE1992A Plant 2,400 - 13,400 ppm DUKE1992A
VANILLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCADIFFORMINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
VINCADINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMEDINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMINE Leaf 200 - 1,680 ppm DUKE1992A [Duke][PDR] VINCAMININE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMINOREINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMINORIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAMINORINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
VINCANORINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCAREINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCARORINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCATINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCESINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCININE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCORIDINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCORINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINCOSIDE Leaf 10,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
VINCRISTINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VININE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINOMINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINOXINE Plant: DUKE1992A
VINTSINE Plant: DUKE1992A [Duke]

V. minor; Indole alkaloids (0.15-1.4%): chief alkaloid vincamine (ebumamine-type, 25-65%), including as well vincine, apovincamine, vincadifformin [PDR]

V. minor; Flavonoids: including kempferol-3-0-rhamnoside-7-0-glucoside, kempferol-3-0-rhamnoglucoside-3-0-galactoside, kempferol-3-0-rhamnoglucoside-3-0-glucoside, quercetin- 3-0-rhamnoglucoside-7-0-glucoside [PDR]

“...vallesiachotamine and isovallesiachotamine were isolated from a Vinca species for the first time. V. minor may be considered as a new source for these two alkaloids due to their occurrence in high amount in the aerial parts of the plant. The alkaloid extracts of the two Vinca species [V. Major and V. Minor]were found to have high lipid peroxidation inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Anticholinesterase activity of the extracts was also very strong.” [IAVMM]


Pharmacology

Activities

V. Major

V. Minor


Commercial Preparations

"Chemicals extracted from the periwinkle plant (Vinca major, Vinca minor and Vinca rosea) have found extensive use in the treatment of many ailments. It has been shown that two of the active compounds in this plant are dimeric alkaloids known as vincristine and vinblastine, sold under the names of "Oncovin®" and "Velban®", respectively. Numerous studies have demonstrated the use of these two extracts in the treatment of various forms of cancer. For example, vincristine has been used in the treatment of acute leukemia and may be used in combination with other oncolytic agents for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, reticulum-cell sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma and Wilm's tumor. Vinblastine is indicated in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, mycosis fungoides, various types of lymphomas, and other carcinomas.[Thame,1989]

Vincristine and vinblastine have been shown to be capable of suppressing herpes simplex virus infections. (Tokumaru and Avitabile, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1971). U.S. Pat. No. 4,328,231 discloses a class of compounds, at least some of which can be isolated from Vinca minor, useful in treating skin diseases such as psoriasis.[Thame,1989]

The present invention uses periwinkle extract for several oral hygiene purposes. These include plaque reduction, control of volatile sulfur compounds (which is related to breath freshening), cleaning of the teeth and conditioning of gum tissue, and relieving the symptoms of gingivitis. The extract appears to possess antimicrobial properties.[Thame,1989]

Claims

1. An oral hygiene method for reducing plaque and for the treatment of periodontal diseases of bacterial etiology, the method comprising reducing bacterial activity in the oral cavity by applying to the oral cavity a composition containing from about 0.3% to about 50% by weight of a dried methanol extract from the perennial herb periwinkle.[Thame,1989]


Vinca major and V. Minor;


Cultivation

V. major, V. minor; "Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Erosion control, Ground cover, Massing, Specimen. A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in almost any soil[200] but prefers those that are on the richer side[17]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant but they do not flower so well in deep shade[11, 28, 31]. They grow well under deciduous trees[187], and in such a situation can succeed in dry soils[190]. Established plants are drought tolerant[190]. A very ornamental[1] and polymorphic plant[200], there are some named forms selected for their ornamental value[187]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits[233]. This species rarely if ever sets seed in Britain[4]. It spreads rapidly by long trailing stems that root at their tips and leaf nodes, it can be invasive[4, 238]. Once it is established it will swamp out smaller plants[4]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attractive flowers or blooms." [PFAF]

Propagation

V. major, V. minor; "Seed - we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if possible. Sow stored seed in late winter in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring just before active growth commences[78], or in autumn[1]. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, 5 - 10 cm long, October in a cold frame. Roots quickly. High percentage[78]." [PFAF]

Use of Related Sp.


References


Caution
The information presented on this site is provided for educational purposes. Self diagnosis and treatment, without due diligence, could be harmful and is not encouraged. Some information & images may be copyright. Every effort has been made to present the information in the spirit with which it was originally presented. Some data has been omitted for legal and/or practical consideration. There is some data not covered in the scope of this project, including, but not limited to, cell culture and large-dose animal studies. I have made comparisons and links between related species which may later prove erroneous. I have not verified the information for accuracy and I accept no responsibility for its authenticity. Many of the plants presented are poisonous, have poisonous properties, or could cause illness through misuse, allergic reaction, drug interactions and environmental contaminants. Please use caution and mindfulness when harvesting plants for any use.

Page last modified on 02-11-2016